How AI and Deepfakes Could Reshape the Advertising Industry


Artificial intelligence is already changing advertising, but how will it reshape it moving forward? Researchers unpack the potential effects of three different forms of AI—analytic, interpretive and creative—on seven categories of advertising industry stakeholders. Can those who embrace the evolving creative AI mechanisms get ahead of competitors?

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Inside the JAR: Going “Dark,” Causality, Gender and Creativity (Event Summary)


At this Insights Studio, a global panel showcased their work published in the Journal of Advertising Research on the impact of halting advertising, methods to improve causality–analysis of TV ad effectiveness, gender roles in ads, and the emotional advertising creativity process. Going “dark” during the pandemic, use of counter-stereotypes, and causality in marketing-mixed modeling were among issues addressed in the concluding Q&A.

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The Optimal Way to Advertise Sequentially Released Products

  • Jooseop Lim and Tieshan Li (Concordia Univ.)

Hollywood pumps out movie sequels like there’s no tomorrow. Why? Sequential distribution is critical to a company’s performance, not only for movies but also for other types of products. This article illustrates that how an advertising budget is allocated across product life stages or product formats over time can make or break success.

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When Measuring an Ad’s Success, Less is More

  • Lawrence Ang (Macquarie Univ. - AU), Martin Eisend (European Univ. - DE)

Who doesn’t like less complex and less costly solutions, if similar results are achieved? This study claims to deliver on that goal by validating the single-item measurement approach (preferred by practitioners) vs. using multiple measures of attitudes (preferred by academics. It’s a welcome outcome in the current era of decreasing survey response rates and respondents’ attention spans.

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What Makes a Television Commercial Sell? – Using Biometrics to Identify Successful Ads via JAR

This study demonstrates the potential of certain neurological measures—in particular, biometrics—to identify television advertisements that successfully lead to sales. The researchers, who represent academia and industry, used direct measures of what they believe matters most to marketers: in-market sales response (from single-source data).

Key Takeaways:

  • Biometrics have the potential to help advertisers understand how sales-successful advertisements work, yet there is no silver-bullet measure to gauge effectiveness
  • The ultimate goal of brand advertisements is to sell; therefore, testing tools must be validated against sales or other relevant behavioral measures
  • Advertisers should establish in advance the desired audience response from any advertisement (e.g. laughter or attention to the brand) and use evidence-supported measures and analysis to ensure the desired response is achieved
  • Key biometrics and objective coding seem useful under defined conditions, whereas traditional survey measures offer no additional value

To access this paper in its entirety, please go to thearf.org website and follow these 3 steps:

  • Login to your myARF
  • Click on “Journal of Advertising Research” on the left hand side menu
  • Locate the article (in italics below) in the search field on the page

How Does Recall Work in Advertising? via the JAR

The September 2016 issue of the JAR includes four papers addressing the question, “How Does Recall Work in Advertising?” Last week featured a pair of papers, the remaining two are presented here.

Comparing Brand Placements and Ads on Brand Recall and Recognition

Despite the popularity of brand placements in television programming, little is known about their effectiveness when used separately compared with when they are combined with commercials.

Key takeaway: There are beneficial synergy effects by using a mixture of these promotional tactics. And for established brands well-known by consumers … marketers should consider using brand placement tactics … as they appear to be as effective at enhancing recognition as costlier commercials.

Can Brand Users Really Remember Advertising More Than NonUsers.

The authors’ research, across six different measures, shows the user bias in memory for advertising is … a real phenomenon, occurring under a wide range of conditions.

Key takeaway: All advertising awareness measures are shown to be biased to users. This has implications for creative design, branding, and pretesting, particularly with advertising that primarily aims to attract nonusers.

To access this paper in its entirety, please go to thearf.org website and follow these 3 steps:

  •       Login to your myARF
  •       Click on “Journal of Advertising Research” on the left hand side menu

•       Locate the article (in italics below) in the search field on the page

“How Does Recall Work in Advertising?”- via The Journal of Advertising Research (JAR)

“If a target audience cannot remember a marketer’s message, advertising largely becomes a waste of time, money and resources. Advertising without recall is advertising without impact.”

The September 2016 issue of the JAR includes four papers addressing the question, “How Does Recall Work in Advertising?” We are excerpting two papers in this issues and will provide the two others next week.

To read a paper in its entirety (plus info on authors),

  • Login to your myARF
  • Click on “Journal of Advertising Research” on the left hand side menu
  • Locate the article in the search field on the page

Spot Length and Unaided Recall in Television.  The researchers analyze both the relationship between spot length and unaided recall in a real-world environment and the direct effect on recall of other advertising break-planning variables. These variables included the position of the break in relation to the television program, the degree of advertising clutter in the break (indicating the break’s duration), the spot’s relative position in the break, and primacy and recency effects.  A Key Finding: “Longer spots” – those lasting more than 20 seconds – generated more recall than would correspond proportionally to increase in length. This conclusion supports the argument that advertisers should buy longer spots to reduce the number of brands per advertising break.

 Digital-Video – the effects of “mid-roll” versus “pre-roll” spots. One of these new formats is “limited-interruption” advertising, in which each midroll advertising break features just one commercial. This study provides empirical guidance by quantifying the positive and negative effects of repeated limited interruption. A Key Finding: For commercials of the same 30 second duration … limited interruption advertising in digital video delivers greater … brand advertising recall than pre-roll advertising. By comparison, 15 second pre-roll advertisements were just as effective as mid-roll ads, most likely because their shorter duration prevents disengagement (i.e. viewers watching, not skipping, the ads).

What 80 Years of Study Means for the Future of Advertising Research? via the Journal of Advertising Research, by Dr. Horst Stipp of the ARF

The ARF was founded in 1936 with a mission to improve the practice of advertising, marketing, and media research in pursuit of more effective marketing and advertising communications.

True to that mission, during its 80th year in 2016, the ARF launched a major new initiative, “How Advertising Works.” The goal was to deliver objective research-based insights that improve advertising and, ultimately, the return on marketing investments (ROI), with actionable insights for marketers in today’s media, consumer, and advertising environments. The study, which is ongoing, is focused on how advertising works today.

But it also provides valuable lessons about the history of advertising research and a glimpse into the future of such research.

The most important conclusion: three factors have been driving advertising research over the past 80 years. They are still the main drivers today and, we believe, will drive advertising research in the future:

  • The emergence of new advertising platforms
  • Changes related to the consumer
  • Methodology and data source innovation

Access full “How Advertising Works” article
(by logging in to MyARF)