Digital Out of Home Advertising

Any out of home advertising (see “Out of Home Advertising (OOH)”) that is digital in nature, including digital billboards, digital ads on bus shelters, in train stations and airports, or other out of home locations.

Direct Cognitive Response

Responses given by a respondent that are directly relevant to the material being presented, and presumably would increase the persuasive power of that information.

Direct Mail Advertising

Consists of mailers, flyers, catalogues, letters, offers and other advertising materials sent directly to people via postal mail. Along with e-mail marketing, it is a form of 1:1 marketing. Because these materials are highly targetable and because their impact has been relatively easy to measure (compared to other forms of advertising) via test/control designs, these campaigns have historically made use of segmented/personalized messaging as well as extensive testing of creative/content.

Direct Response

A type of advertisement which encourages an immediate behavioral response, such as seeking more information or making a purchase immediately from the advertiser, without having to go to a physical location. Direct mail, email marketing, and telemarketing are examples of this form of marketing, though it can also include advertising on other platforms, such as television, that provide a mechanism for immediate purchase.

Direct Response Advertising

Advertising that is geared toward soliciting an immediate response from customers, typically communicating a promotion or offer, with an urgent call to action, while making use of a “1-800 number” or “promotion code” so that the impact of the advertising can be directly measured. This form of advertising may take the form of a mailer, a TV ad, a display ad or any other format.

Discrete Choice Analysis

A form of trade-off analysis in which discrete options are presented to respondents to evaluate. Discrete choice does not necessarily follow a traditional factorial design, in which at least one level of every factor is exposed to the respondent. Discrete choice analysis has the distinct advantage of presenting real-world options to consumers and so has become one of the more widely used trade-off methodologies.


In advertising and marketing, a lack of excitement, interest, attention or involvement aroused by an ad or ad campaign, either expressed consciously in response to questions, or nonconsciously as observed through the measurement of the body’s response (see “Consumer Neuroscience”) at the time of exposure. See also “Engagement.”

Display Advertising

A type of online advertising that comes in several forms, including banner ads, rich media and more. Unlike text-based ads, display advertising relies on elements such as images, audio and video to communicate an advertising message.

Display Remarketing

Display campaigns that target people based on specific past actions. The most common example is display advertising that targets people who have visited a brand’s website, using images or offers relevant to recently researched or shopped items. It may consist of targeting only or targeting coupled with custom creative/messaging.


In film and video editing, an effect whereby one image or scene gradually fades into, or transitions into, another image or scene. See “Fade.”

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