Laddering is an idea association technique used in research and ideation that assumes that tangible brand/product characteristics are associated with higher-order benefits. In this technique, people are probed about a brand or product’s tangible attributes (e.g., red, beverage), then functional benefits (e.g., quenches thirst, provides nutrients), and then the emotional benefits (e.g., gives me confidence, makes me feel young). This leads ultimately to higher-order benefits (e.g., optimism, freedom). (See also “Functional Benefits” and “Emotional Benefits.”)


The way in which all of the major elements (for example images, headline, logo and other graphic elements) of a static ad are arranged for display.

Length Of Interview (LOI)

The amount of time that participants need to complete an interview (see “Interview”). Term used in both survey research and qualitative research, and abbreviated “LOI”.


Favorability or overall positive opinion. Likeability is a key diagnostic included in most ad effectiveness research. It is also frequently used in brand tracking research, product concept evaluation, and spokesperson ratings. Likeability is often measured with a rating scale; such a scale may be referred to as a hedonic scale (see “Scale, Hedonic”) or enjoyment scale.

Lip Sync (Synchronization)

In video, the silent movement of an actor’s or singer’s mouth in synchronization with a recorded soundtrack.

Live Action

A video that records a scene as it is happening, as opposed to being pre-recorded.


The emblem, image, symbol, graphic mark or other identifying visual element used by a brand, so that it can be uniquely recognized (See also “Trademark”).

Long-term Memory

In media and market research, the type of memory in which information about a brand, product, service or message to which someone has been exposed is processed, stored, and retrieved (recalled) at a later time, at least one day after exposure. Long-term memory may include episodic memory and semantic memory. Long-term memory may also be divided into explicit (conscious) and implicit (nonconscious).

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