In advertising and marketing, the most prominent text in a print, static digital or out-of home ad.

Heart Monitor

A device used to measure and record heart rate (see “Heart Rate”).

Hidden Issue Questioning

A technique used during depth interviews (see “Interview, Depth”) that aims to identify deeply personal views or concerns that would otherwise not be revealed by participants using a more direct approach. An interviewer must exercise tact in getting this kind of personal information out of the participant.

Hierarchy of Needs

A theory proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 describing the order of the developmental motivations throughout the human life span. The theory suggests that individual needs develop in a sequential order ranging from basic physiological needs to the need for safety, belonging, self-esteem and self-fulfillment. Higher order of needs emerge as lower ones are satisfied. As it relates to advertising, some marketers use the theory as they consider the need states fulfilled by a particular brand, product or service.


A theory or idea made often on the basis of limited evidence about the possible causes of some change in a marketing variable or an explanation of some phenomenon. Hypotheses are often used as the foundation of experimental design (see “Experimental Design”) in a research protocol to provide evidence in support of a theory or idea. See “Deductive Research.”