Facial Coding

A measurement of the movements of the facial musculature with the goal of capturing expressed emotion (see “Emotions”). In media and market research, the most common variant uses camera based computer vision to measure participants’ faces while experiencing a marketing stimulus such as video advertising, video promotions or program content. Software based algorithms are then used to evaluate the type of facial response (such as happy, sad, angry, fearful, disgust). Also referred to as “Facial Expression Analysis.” The term “Facial Coding” is often used interchangeably with the less preferred term “FACS/Facial Action Coding System.” See also “fEMG/Facial Electromyography.”


In film and video editing, the term may refer to a “dissolve” (where one image gradually dissolves into, and is replaced by another) or to a “fade in” (where a blank screen gradually transitions to be replaced by an image or scene) or to a “fade out” (where an image or scene gradually transitions to be replaced by a blank screen). These may be used to create different effects (for example, the effect of time passing when used in a montage).

Film Noir/Cult film (creative genre)

A type of advertising genre inspired by 1940’s and 1950’s film noir cinema. The genre is characterized by elements such as a thriller or detective storyline, cynical characters, and a mood of pessimism, fatalism, and menace. This genre is usually produced in black and white rather than color, with a 1940’s-1950’s feeling.”


See “Bias, Anchoring.”

Focus Group Discussion

Refers specifically to the conversation in a focus group (see “Focus Group”).

Focus Group Moderator

A person who leads a focus group discussion (see “Focus Group Discussion”) in a reflective, nondirective manner. The role of the moderator is to not influence the outcome but to ensure that all the topics outlined in the research brief (see “Research Brief”) are discussed by the group, and the views of each participant are voiced as clearly as possible.

Focus Group, Bulletin Board

A type of focus group (see “Focus Group”) that is conducted via an online discussion forum.

Focus Group, Exploratory

A type of focus group (see “Focus Group”) that is conducted during the exploratory phase (see “Exploratory Research”) to help researchers define a marketing problem and generate hypotheses to be used in subsequent studies.

Focus Group, Global

A type of focus group (see “Focus Group”) that is conducted in multiple countries. These focus groups can be conducted by several in-person moderators (see “Focus Group Moderator”) working independently, or these groups can be conducted via the internet in multiple countries simultaneously (see “Focus Group, Internet”).