Deductive Research

A form of media and market research that involves developing a research hypothesis based on one or more existing theories, and then designing a market research strategy to test the proposed hypothesis. See also “Inductive Research.”

Descriptive Research

A form of media and market research that aims to describe characteristics of a consumer, population or phenomenon in order to identify associations among variables. This type of research seeks to answer the ‘what’ question, rather than the ‘how, when or why’ question.

Differentiated Advantage

An advantage, or set of advantages, that a given product/brand has relative to the competition. See “Unique Selling Proposition.”

Digital Out of Home Advertising

Any out of home advertising (see “Out of Home Advertising (OOH)”) that is digital in nature, including digital billboards, digital ads on bus shelters, in train stations and airports, or other out of home locations.

Direct Response Advertising

Advertising that is geared toward soliciting an immediate response from customers, typically communicating a promotion or offer, with an urgent call to action while making use of a “1-800 number” or “promotion code” so that the impact of the advertising can be directly measured. This form of advertising may take the form of a mailer, a TV ad, a display ad or any other format.


In advertising and marketing, a lack of excitement, interest, attention or involvement aroused by an ad or ad campaign, either expressed consciously in response to questions, or nonconsciously as observed through measurement of the body’s response (see “Consumer Neuroscience”) at the time of exposure. See also “Engagement.”

Display ad*

See “Display Advertising.”

Display Remarketing

Display campaigns that target people based on specific past actions. The most common example is display advertising that targets people who have visited a brand’s website, using images or offers relevant to recently researched or shopped items. It may consist of targeting only, or targeting coupled with custom creative/messaging.


In film and video editing, an effect whereby one image or scene gradually fades into, or transitions into, another image or scene. See “Fade.”

Double Blind Test

A research technique where information that could introduce bias is withheld from both the participants and the researcher. In market research, this often refers to a product test where both the researcher administering the test and the participants are unaware of the complete identity of the products being tested.