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Research Methodologies/Approach

A/B Testing

A type of experimental design (see “Experimental Design”) that compares two different advertising executions in which a random half of all those exposed to an ad sees one version of the ad, while the other random half sees a different version; responses to each version — measured by a post-exposure survey or by other passive measures of advertising performance (such as click-throughs, conversions, engagement, time spent for digital ads) are compared to determine which version is stronger.

Ad Testing

Research used to evaluate a specific advertisement or campaign, typically by asking consumers to rate an ad or campaign. Copy testing can be performed with unfinished work, to help inform the final creative execution, or with finished work (“finish-testing”), to help guide decisions about best audience targeting, media placement, and media weight/rotation. It is sometimes performed before ads are released (“pre-testing”), and sometimes performed post-release (“in-market testing” or “post-testing”). Also referred to as “Copy Research,” “Ad Testing,” and “Creative Testing.” See also “Concept Test.”

Behavioral Coding

A structured observation (see “Structured Observation”) measurement technique used in media and market research that independently categorizes individual participants’ actions (for example, the coding of product interactions and behaviors while consuming media). This technique may be used in controlled settings (such as a laboratory environment) or naturalistic settings (such as in the home or in a store) to understand consumer behaviors (see “Behavior”).

Biometrics

The study of biologically measurable responses and/or traits of humans. Biometric measures are commonly employed in media and market research to indicate global state changes in arousal (see “Arousal”), which help to infer the depth of an individual’s emotional response (see “Emotions”) to a marketing stimuli. Types of biometric response measured include changes in skin conductance (see “Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)”), heart rate (see “Heart Rate” or “PPG/Photoplethysmography”), and less frequently pupil dilation (see “Pupilometry” or “Pupil Dilation”), respiration, motion and voice analysis (see “Voice Analysis”).

Blind Test

A technique used in media and market research to test one or more products in which brand names, logos (see “Logo/Logotype”), or any other identifying information is removed or masked. The purpose of this technique is to reduce or eliminate the amount of bias (see “Bias”) or influence that a study participants’ expectations or preferences may have on the results. Also referred to as “Blinded Experiment.”

Blinded Experiment

A technique used in media and market research to test one or more products in which brand names, logos (see “Logo/Logotype”), or any other identifying information is removed or masked. The purpose of this technique is to reduce or eliminate the amount of bias (see “Bias”) or influence that a study participants’ expectations or preferences may have on the results. Also referred to as “Blinded Experiment.”

Brand Positioning Studies

In media and market research, studies designed to capture or assess the consumer’s conceptualization of a brand (see “Brand”) relative to competitive brands. This conceptualization can be captured using both conscious and nonconscious methodologies.