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Measurement

A/B Testing

A type of experimental design (see “Experimental Design”) that compares two different advertising executions in which a random half of all those exposed to an ad sees one version of the ad, while the other random half sees a different version; responses to each version — measured by a post-exposure survey or by other passive measures of advertising performance (such as click-throughs, conversions, engagement, time spent for digital ads) are compared to determine which version is stronger.

Ad Clutter

Refers to when multiple ads appear in the same space, either adjacent or close by, such as on websites, television networks, newspapers or other advertising channels and platforms.

Ad Testing

Research used to evaluate a specific advertisement or campaign, typically by asking consumers to rate an ad or campaign. Copy testing can be performed with unfinished work, to help inform the final creative execution, or with finished work (“finish-testing”), to help guide decisions about best audience targeting, media placement, and media weight/rotation. It is sometimes performed before ads are released (“pre-testing”), and sometimes performed post-release (“in-market testing” or “post-testing”). Also referred to as “Copy Research,” “Ad Testing,” and “Creative Testing.” See also “Concept Test.”

Ad Tracking

Research performed in-market that monitors a brand’s performance based on a particular ad or ad campaign to determine the effectiveness of the ad’s ability to deliver brand recall (see “Recall, Brand”) or message playback as an indicator of the quality of the ad’s performance.

Advertising Reach

The estimated number of people or households exposed to an ad or advertising campaign at least once, often expressed as a percentage of the total number of people in a target audience or in a specific geography.

Advertising Wearout

The condition in which an advertisement no longer has the desired, or any, effect on consumer attitudes (see “Attitude”) or behavior (see “Behavior”) due to prolonged or repeated exposure (see “Advertising Exposure”); also refers to the time point (for example, X number of times of repetition or duration) at which an advertisement is no longer effective (see “Advertising Effectiveness”) due to prolonged or repeated exposure.

Affect

In media and market research, a feeling or emotion experienced in response to a brand, product, advertisement or other marketing stimuli. According to modern psychology, affective responses are composed of three dimensions: Valence (see “Valence”), arousal (see “Arousal”) and motivational intensity (see “Motivational Intensity”). The term affective response should not be confused with the term mood (see “Mood”).

Affect Heuristic

A type of cognitive heuristic (see “Cognitive Heuristic”) in which consumers rely upon their current emotional state (see “Emotions”) to judge the risks and benefits to simplify a decision. Sometimes referred to as “going with your gut.”

Affective Response

In media and market research, a feeling or emotion experienced in response to a brand, product, advertisement or other marketing stimuli. According to modern psychology, affective responses are composed of three dimensions: Valence (see “Valence”), arousal (see “Arousal”) and motivational intensity (see “Motivational Intensity”). The term affective response should not be confused with the term mood (see “Mood”).