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Knowledge at Hand

A quick reference for information on a wide range of industry subjects from fundamental to leading edge.

KaH: Optimal Frequency Planning: Research, Guidelines & Recommendations

Much of the early but still influential thinking around optimal frequency stems from Herbert Krugman. While at GE in the 1960s, Krugman developed the “three hit” theory of frequency. It said that consumers needed to be exposed to an ad three times for it to be effective. Michael Naples’ work in 1979 supported Krugman’s claim but added a few nuances. For one, he concluded that less well-known brands require more frequency. Then, in 1982, Joseph Ostrow outlined several marketing factors that impact which frequency is optimal, Including brand share level, length
of purchase cycle and the nature of the target audience.  Read the article.

KaH: Influencer Marketing: Best Practices, Trends & Covid’s Impact

The growth of social media has made online influencers a more important marketing tool than ever before. At the same time, influencer marketing is growing more complex: Options are increasing and in today’s climate, striking the right tone with consumers is more important than ever before. What consumers want to see is authentic relationships between brands and influencers. In just a few years, the paradigm has shifted from a focus on major celebrities to niche, micro-influencers.  In sum, finding the right influencer is crucial and yet can be challenging.  Read more.

KaH: Understanding Biases in Panel and Census Research Using AI/ML

Numerous biases can impact panel and census research. While some believe that artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) offer easy ways to circumvent them, the truth is, algorithms can perpetuate such biases. This is true of surveys, panels and the big data sets that are often used to calibrate each other. The following report covers the numerous biases that can occur, where they may infiltrate panel and census research that use AI/ML and mitigation efforts to account for them. Read the article.

KaH: Attention and Ad Impact: New Insights from New Research

One of the essential goals of advertising is to get customers’ attention. However, a lot of campaigns approach this simplistically. More “attention” does not necessarily mean an ad is more effective. Attention is a much more complex phenomenon than that. While attention is a prerequisite for ad impact, the term is ambiguous, complex and attention is difficult to measure. Moreover, “attention” does not necessarily indicate a positive response, and a high level of attention is not always a sign of a positive ad impact. Read more.

KaH: Best Practices for Comingling Set-Top Box and Smart TV ACR Data

Data sets for STBs and Smart TVs have, up until now, been separate from one another, which has hampered the ability to accurately assess viewing habits. This data would be very useful for planning, buying and optimizing ad campaigns. Since the two are complementary, combining them can help us form scaled, granular, TV tuning data sets that are more nationally representative. Luckily, a new report from the Coalition for Innovative Media Measurement (CIMM)—a subsidiary of the ARF, outlines best practices for combining set-top box data and smart TV ACR data. Read more.

KaH: Best Practices in Media and Market Research Studies

Improving research quality and identifying best practices are important parts of the ARF’s mission. Last November, the debate over “What went wrong with polling?” prompted the ARF to examine the reasons for many election polls’ poor performance and explore how pollsters can overcome the challenges they face today and in upcoming elections. Read more.

KaH: How to Adapt Global Campaigns to Local Contexts

Building a brand across multiple countries is challenging. Generic messages are less likely to reach consumers across the globe today. What’s more, recent neuro studies suggest consumers in different countries process creatives differently. On another front, the business environment is unique in each market, meaning a different strategy is needed to position the brand and take on the competition.

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KaH: How to Use Context to Optimize Advertising Campaigns

No advertisement is seen in isolation. The impact an ad has depends on the context it finds itself in, including what type of ad or content preceded it or what it is adjacent to, in terms of digital or print. Today, there is a renewed interest in context effects, particularly in the COVID era, as advertisers worry about their ads rolling after or being adjacent to upsetting news. This newly updated Knowledge at Hand and corresponding CMO Brief explore all the latest research and insights surrounding context effects.

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KaH: Advertising Creativity and Strategy

What are the secrets to creating and developing the best advertising creative? Several studies published in the March issue of the Journal of Advertising Research (JAR) have become so influential in answering this question, the ARF held an Insights Studio event about it. There, creative experts from a number of different countries presented their fascinating findings. The following Knowledge at Hand distills these learnings into a brisk report brimming with insights, including how great creative ideas are generated and evaluated, if portraying passion in advertising transfers to the consumer, where six-second TV commercials work, and where they don’t, and more. Read more.

KaH: Elements of a Successful Brand Purpose Campaign

Defining what makes purpose-driven marketing campaigns successful has historically been more art than science. In an effort to shift the balance squarely back in favor of science, the ARF and Kantar have introduced Cracking Brand
Purpose, a study that identifies the elements that create leading purpose-driven campaigns and provides a best-in-class framework to shape, guide and evaluate future campaigns.  Read more.