December 2013, Volume 53, No. 4
What We Know About Media-Mix Marketing

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Letter from the CEO
Gayle Fuguitt, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013

Gayle Fuguitt, CEO and president of the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF), explains how the ARF is focusing on the role of research insight as technology and data progress. New research solutions such as big data and neuro techniques are meaningless without human insight. The Erwin Ephron Demystification Award is also introduced in this editorial.

What We Know About New Mixes in Media Marketing
Geoffrey Precourt, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2013, pp. 356-357

In his editorial, Geoffrey Precourt introduces December's Journal of Advertising Research, including opportunities for ads in paused video streams, comparison of emotional ad formats, in-game advertising, and multi-channel marketing. ABC noticed that many people paused online videos, and research found that though ads appearing at this time were not as effective as normal television ads, they did use “wasted” time. It has also been found that emotional ads are more effective when viewed on television, or television and online, and that in-game ads are most effective when they entertain players with content that relates to their self image.

Please Pass the Bacon: A Tribute to Erwin Ephron
Gale Metzger, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 359-360

This article is a tribute to the late Erwin Ephron, tracking his progress from audience research at Nielsen to co-founding an ad agency and becoming a massive industry figure. Ephron's use of words and clarity of expression was not just a talent, but something he worked hard at. This ability transferred well into his writing and presentations at industry conferences, of which he was the unmissable highlight.

Partnering for Growth in Emerging Markets: Why Advertising Agencies Need to Lead, Not Follow
C. Samuel Craig, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 361-362

C. Samuel Craig, the Catherine and Peter Kellner Professor of Marketing and International Business at New York University's Stern School of Business, finds a number of challenges for advertisers in emerging markets. Professor Craig, in fact, has developed a distinguished body of work covering international marketing research and global marketing strategy. In the pages that follow, Dr. Craig argues that it is essential for global advertisers and agencies to establish a presence in emerging markets while, at the same time, embracing rapidly changing technology as it reshapes how they reach and influence consumers.

Research Quality: The Interaction of Sampling and Weighting in Producing a Representative Sample Online: An Excerpt from the ARF’s “Foundations of Quality 2” Initiative
John Bremer, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 363-371

This paper discusses the effects of sampling and weighting, and whether tight sampling control removes the need for weighting. Weighting, the practice of giving some responses more influence over a final result, is a controversial tool. Weighting is often used in online surveys in order to better reflect the population. The need for weighting is discussed when tight sampling specifications have been implemented - whereby the people surveyed have been selected to accurately reflect population demographics. This study finds that there is no firm conclusion as to the need for weighting after tight sampling, but that complex sampling specifications may result in different practices from providers. Weighting reduces the risk of unreliable sampling.

Big Data: Friend or Foe of Digital Advertising? Five Ways Marketers Should Use Digital Big Data to Their Advantage
Gian Fulgoni, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 372-376

This paper discusses the impact of big data, arguing that if used correctly it can have a positive impact, but that there are a number of perils which may not be apparent. The introduction of scanning technology in the 1980s started the big data trend: where previously retailers and manufacturers had to rely on bi-monthly stock checks, sales data was now available daily. This allowed the impact of short term promotions to be better assessed, and led to an increase in their use which is eroding brand equity. Big data creates a similar risk in encouraging short term decision making. Five recommendations to maximize the positive impact of big data are given: avoid a race to the bottom on pricing; stop optimizing to the click; understand ad cookie limitations; don't over-target; and accurately determine attribution.


Features

More than Just “Snap, Crackle, and Pop” “Draw, Write, and Tell”: An Innovative Research Method with Young Children
Robert J. Angell and Catherine Angell, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 377-390

The current study introduces “Draw, Write, and Tell” (DWT), a creative method suitable for research with younger children between the ages of 5 and 11 years. A case study using an advertisement promoting Kellogg’s Rice Krispies cereal illustrated how DWT can be implemented in practice. The researchers concluded that the method offers several benefits. Data quality was high as a result of participant and stakeholder buy-in, the application of visualization methods, and the possibility of data triangulation through its multi-method design. Advertisers can use the results for evaluating children’s responses to advertising material. What is more, enhanced creativity provides an opportunity for the modification of communications. Limitations of DWT with directions for its future development also are considered.

Matching Product Attributes to Celebrities Who Reinforce the Brand: An Innovative Algorithmic Selection Model
Moti Zwilling and Gila E. Fruchter, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 391-410

Recent studies have revealed that a celebrity’s endorsement of a product or service positively influenced the purchase intention of the consumer. Such findings have created a necessity to identify the specific characteristics of celebrities that most positively influence an advertiser’s target audience. This study offers an innovative model for selecting celebrities that will most effectively endorse a specific product. By implementing adaptive conjoint analysis and genetic algorithms in the advertising process, advertisers will newly approach the method of matching product and celebrity from the perspective of product design.

Dance to the Music! How Musical Genres in Advertisements Can Sway Perceptions of Image
Steve Oakes and Adrian North, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 411-416

Background musical genres can have a profound influence on the perceived image of real and fictitious universities in television and radio advertisements. In this study, experiments showed how dance music enhanced (while classical music diminished) the desired image for the university as modern, exciting, and trendy. Classical music resulted in a more sophisticated perceived image for the learning environment and an anticipation of higher university fees compared to no-music and dance music treatments. Dance music, however, increased the desire to apply for a place at the advertised university by communicating the hedonic pleasures of student life.

Leveraging Synergy and Emotion in a Multi-Platform World: A Neuroscience-Informed Model of Engagement
Audrey Steele, Devra Jacobs, Caleb Siefert, Randall Rule, Brian Levine, and Carl D. Marci, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 417-430

The proliferation of media platforms raises questions among marketers about their relative value. This study tests a neuroscience-informed model of immersive-versus flexible audience engagement and demonstrates television’s heightened ability to sustain nonconscious emotional response over online viewing. Employing biometrics and eye tracking, 251 participants experienced 24 brands on television, online, or both. Findings indicate that brand advertising proved far more emotionally engaging when experienced on television alone or combined with online viewing. This emotional connection using both platforms proved strongest when the television program and Web site content were related. The results support prior research that demonstrates television’s ability to engage and sustain emotional response.

Effects of Multi-Channel Marketing on Consumers’ Online Search Behavior: The Power of Multiple Points of Connection
Michel Laroche, Isar Kiani, Nectarios Economakis, and Marie-Odile Richard, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 431-443

Amid the plethora of research on advertising effectiveness, the authors of the current study believe consumers’ online search behavior, subsequent to exposure to traditional advertising messages, has been understudied. Using data from a major telecommunication company, this study’s findings support the influence of employing multiple channels, advertising expenditures, and television and online advertising on consumers’ tendency to follow through with their own online investigations.

Unlocking the “Reminder” Potential when Viewers Pause Programs: Results from a Laboratory Test of a New Online Medium
Larry Neale, Steven Bellman, Shiree Treleaven-Hassard, Jennifer A. Robinson, and Duane Varan, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 444-454

The branded pause advertisement is a recently developed online television-advertising format that displays a full-screen still-image banner ad whenever a viewer pauses a streaming-video program. This study used a controlled lab experiment to compare the effectiveness of branded pause advertisements with normal online television advertisements. The results demonstrate that branded pause advertisements are effective but only when combined with a long-exposure advertisement for the same brand. Despite their short exposure time, pause advertisements function as effective reminders, building awareness through repeat exposure. The findings of the current study were similar regardless of whether pause advertisements were activated as a result of viewers’ pausing at a time of their own choosing or whether viewers were interrupted.

What Factors Affect Consumer Acceptance of In-Game Advertisements? Click “Like” to Manage Digital Content for Players
Gina A. Tran and David Strutton, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013, pp. 455-469

In-game advertising (IGA) may offer an attractive opportunity for advertisers to reach an elusive consumer segment if messaging is managed effectively. In this study, the authors applied media uses and gratification theory to investigate factors related to gamers’ acceptance of advertisements in online games across various platforms. They also investigated the influence of the acceptance of IGA on gamers’ word-of-mouth behavior and attitudes toward brands and products featured in online IGA. Using structural equation modeling as a basis for its hypotheses, the study reveals that “informativeness,” entertainment, self-brand congruity, privacy concerns, and invasiveness are associated with online gamer attitudes toward IGA. In turn, attitudes toward IGA are related to word-of-mouth intentions.